Luciferase reporter assays, Western blots, RT-PCR, Other
PC tissues and cell lines PANC-1, AsPC-1, Capan-2, SW1990, and BXPC-3
The results show that overexpression of GAS5 suppressed the proliferation, migration, gemcitabine resistance, stem cell-like properties, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of PC cells by directly binding to and suppressing miR-221 expression and enhancing suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression. The effects of miR-221 overexpression on proliferation, migration, gemcitabine resistance, stem cell-like properties, and EMT inhibition were reversed by SOCS3 overexpression in PC cells. Additionally, GAS5 promoted gemcitabine-induced tumor growth and metastasis inhibition, as determined by Ki-67 staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), bioluminescence imaging, and the detection of cell-like properties and EMT in vivo.